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Colonial Policy Of The Russian Empire Againts The Unity Of Turkic Peoples (On The Example Of Educational Policy)

In the article authors analyze colonial intention of the Russian Empire and its successor the USSR directed to weaken and obliterate common Turkic spirit, spiritual affinity, and friendly social and political ties among Turkic nations in the 19th and 20th centuries through its education system. Topical motives of the Russian Empire directed to enforced Russification of Turkic nations were to spread colonial language and to educate in the context of colonial spirit. Ministry of National Education (the Russian Empire) and teaching missionaries paid great attention to schools opened for non-Russian nations and aimed at Russification policy. The main purpose of schools for non-Russian nations was to train lower level employee serving for their political and social needs, but not to educate and motivate them. Abai who realized that education was necessary for people criticized the Kazakhs who studied in colonial schools and capitalized their knowledge assisting Russian authority to oppress the Kazakh people, he said “We ought to educate ourselves, learn what other people know so as to become their equals and be a shield and a pillar for our people”, and spread these ideas among the Turkic nation people. Common goal gathered Kazakh intellectuals educated by Abai’s ideas in the early 20th century was to release the oppressed people from slavery, to emancipate them from mental slavery, to refresh historical memory, and to become a developed nation. Such thinkers as Magzhan Zhumabayev, who versified the collapse of Turkic spirit a great in his time, and the time to unite for the freedom-loving and courageous Turkic nations as brave as a lion, gathered within the idea of new method teaching aimed at secular education, but not colonial policy. At that point Pan-Turkism idea of “Alash” political movement coincides with Jadid ideas. Jadid ideology was widespread in Kazakh territory and developed into “Alash” movement in 1910-1920. Jadid was not political trends, but one with platform totally covered enlightenment and spirituality. Jadids considered “language, thought, and action unity” of Turkic nations and spiritual renewal through enlightenment as main ways of decolonization. They reformed schools and madrasah education system according to the “new method”, and started to deliver such subjects as arithmetic, geography, history, natural science, and languages as well as religion. Akhmet Baitursynuly, Magzhan Zhumabayev, Mirzhakyp Dulatuly, and the other Kazakh intellectuals supporting Jadid initiatives began to teach Kazakh people by “new method”, and fostered all the efforts to educate them without missionary intentions. However the USSR government persecuted Kazakh intellectuals who spread the ideas of Turkic nations’ unity on false charges as “Pan-Islamist” and “Pan-Turkist”, and repressed them as “enemies of the people”. This article presents that nationwide program of “Spiritual revival” implemented in Kazakhstan is aimed at renewal of Turkic nations’ unity, spiritual integrity, and common Turkic historical memory; states decisions to switch Kazakh from a Cyrillic to a Latin alphabet makes Turkic nations closer in the modern world.

colonization policy, education,


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