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Abstract


Ba'ath Party And The Arab Spring

In the Middle East, in areas where the Ottoman Empire lost its domination, many states with, mandate state , nation state, and mostly monarchy state were established. One of the states established in this period is Syria. The efforts to overcome the administrative gap in Syria go back nearly 80 years. The French buffalo management established in the region after the First World War has a distinctive role rather than unifying. Despite the Sunni majority in Syria, France favored minority religious groups and made them effective in the country's administration. The basis of today's conflict climates stems from the discriminatory steps taken during this period. During the mandate period of France, two states, the center of Damascus and Aleppo, and one Alevi-Druze state were established in Syria. These administrations continued their existence until the 40s. The establishment of the Pan-Arabism based Baath Party coincides with this period. The Baath Party seized the Syrian power in 1963 with an attempted coup. Although Arab nationalism was the basis of this party, it could not achieve a complete unity among the Arabs. The main power of the Ba'ath Party in Syria was shaped by the period of Hafez Assad, who chaired between 1970 and 2000. Later, his son Bashar Assad took over the administration and continued his power until 2011. 2010 was the year when the popular revolts started for democracy and a better administration in the Middle East and the first spark of a period called the Arab Spring was fired. Although the uprisings of people who started in Tunisia in December 2010 and spread to almost the entire Middle East, seeking freedom, democracy and equality have resolved in many countries, they have been fruitless in Syria. Although there are many reasons for this situation, the effect of foreign powers on the country can be seen as the most important of these reasons. As a matter of fact, in this mixed period, which we can call the Spring of Syria, many groups and external supporters in the country also make it difficult to work on solutions. Syria, the starting point of the Arab world revolutions in the Middle East, lagged behind the popular uprisings, later called the Arab Spring. Although there are many reasons for this situation, the effect of foreign powers on the country can be seen as the most important of these reasons.



Keywords
Arab Spring, Ba'ath Party, Mandate Management, Pan-Arabism, Syria.



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